Complation of a catalogue of small-sized craters and crater density analysis
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Modern space images and high-resolution digital elevation models allow one to identify small craters on the surface of celestial bodies and get their geomorphological characteristics like diameter (D), depth (H), relative depth (H/D), draw vertical profiles, calculate inner slope values. For detailed studying of terrains under investigation there have been compiled A Catalogue of small-sized craters for certain areas of the Moon (the landing sites of the Soviet lunar missions, lunar rovers traverses, landing site candidates of the future missions "Luna-Globe" and "Lunar-Resource ") as well as A Global Catalogue of Phobos' craters. The application of GIS-technologies permits of a computerized assessment of the crater density level of territories (spatial density), draw of cumulative crater density graphs. All these facilitate a profound geomorphological analysis of the surface of celestial bodies.
A Crater Catalogue of the first option of the landing ellipse of the Project "Luna-Globe": Kaguya DEM (7.5 m/pixel); LRO NAC orthoimages (0.5 m/pixel)
A Global Catalogue of Phobos' Craters, Mars Express spacecraft data: DEM (100 m/pixel); orthomosaic (20 m/pixel)
A map of spatial crater density along the "Lunokhod-1" rover traverse, compiled from the Catalogue of Small-sized Craters: DEM (1 m/pixel); orthoimage (0.5 m/pixel)
The graph of cumulative crater density (D>10 m) along the "Lunokhod-1" travel line
Map of Mars craters in Tharsis
Wall learning map «Craters of the great volcanoes of Mars in the Tharsis» designed on the theme «Research and analysis of populations of small impact craters on the Martian volcanoes to study the geological history and climate of Mars».
Space images of high resolution HiRISE (insets) shows that almost the entire surface of around four highest volcanoes of Mars in the Tharsis - Olympus Mons, Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons - covered with a layer of wind sediments is probably fine sand. In some areas of the volcanoes and the foothills of impact craters formed on the surface wind deposits, are practically absent, indicating efficient data changes relief forms, i.e. sand transported by wind (saltation) and fully asleep small craters much faster than they are produced. In other areas, for example, at high altitudes, there is a number of small impact craters formed on the surface wind deposits. These phenomena indicate that here the wind does not exceed the threshold saltation, moving Sands occurring, and craters remain intact. In particular, at higher altitudes, low atmospheric pressure and, therefore, the low density of the air is not conducive saltation. However, the observed and the number of craters little. This means that in the recent geological past, the winds were stronger and/or atmospheric pressure is higher, and the active migration of sand destroyed all previous craters. Counting craters can find out when it happened, and the detailed study of craters may shed light on the atmospheric pressure in the past.
For these purposes in GIS created a directory of small impact craters formed on a large volcanoes on Mars. The map shows the researched on the basis of space images from HiRISE areas of the Tharsis.